Cyanotype process – a modified extract from the book Blueprint to cyanotypes describing the classic or traditional cyanotype process.
Always be careful when handling chemicals. Read the health and safety instructions.
Unlike photographs set in silver – such as black and white photography – cyanotypes are using a solution of iron compounds.
The photograph can be taken with a camera, like a digital camera, and the resulting photo turned into a negative that can be used to make a cyanotype.
The basic cyanotype recipe has not changed very much since Sir John Herschel introduced it in 1842. However, some advances have been made by Mike Ware in what is referred to as the New cyanotype process. Ware’s cyanotype formula has less bleed, shorter exposure times and a longer density range than Herschel’s, but it is also slightly more complicated to mix and uses more toxic chemicals.
The cyanotype process at a glance
The cyanotype process is simple. It can be done easily in a few steps:
The cyanotype is made up of two simple solutions.
- Potassium ferricyanide and Ferric ammonium citrate (green) are mixed with water separately.
- The two solutions are then blended together in equal parts.
Preparing the canvas
- Paper, card, textiles or any other naturally absorbent material is coated with the solution and dried in the dark.
Printing the cyanotype
- Objects or negatives are placed on the material to make a print. The cyanotype is printed using UV light, such as the sun, a light box or a UV lamp.
Processing and drying
- After exposure the material is processed by simply rinsing it in water. A white print emerges on a blue background.
- The final print is dried and admired.
What you need
Before you start, get all the items you need together.
- 25 grams of Ferric ammonium citrate (green)
- 10 grams of Potassium ferricyanide
- Water (distilled if possible)
- Scale or measuring spoons
- Measuring jug
- 3 glass containers for mixing ingredients
- Plastic spoons
- Face mask (DIY style)
- Rubber gloves
- Apron or old shirt
- Newspaper to cover work surface
- Cleaning cloth
- Brushes or coating rod
- Clothes pegs (plastic)
- Washing line or rope (plastic)
- Art paper or fabric for coating
- Glass or a contact print frame
- Sunshine or a UV light source
Cyanotype is a very simple process. It involves treating a surface with iron salts that reacts to UV light. Wear a face mask and rubber gloves when working with chemicals. In this case, Ammonium ferric citrate and Potassium ferricyanide. Two separate solutions are made and then equal quantities of each solution is mixed together in a third container.
This recipe makes approximately 50 8×10 inch prints. The cyanotype is made up of two simple solutions:
- Solution A: 25 grams Ferric ammonium citrate (green) water to make up 100 ml solution.
- Solution B: 10 grams Potassium ferricyanide and water to make up 100 ml solution.
1Mixing the chemicals
Dissolve the chemicals in water (start with a little less than 100 ml in each) to make two separate solutions. Add Ammonium ferric citrate to water into one container and Potassium ferricyanide to water in another. Stir with a plastic spoon until the chemicals dissolve. Add water to make up 100 ml of solution. The chemicals will also have volume, so do not add 100 ml of water – the final solution should be 100 ml. Mix equal quantities of each solution together in a third container. Unused solutions can be stored separately in brown bottles away from light, but will not last very long once they have been mixed. Dispose of any unused chemicals in a sensible and environmentally friendly way!
Your work area
Your floors, carpets, walls, work surfaces, clothes and skin can be stained by the chemicals. Cover all possible areas, use rubber gloves and an apron or an old shirt to work in. If you have the space, choose an area where you can spread out. Ordinary light bulbs or tungsten light is safe to use, but UV light will affect your prints. Some fluorescent lighting may also affect your prints.
2Preparing the canvas
Using a brush, simply paint the chemicals onto the material. Paper, card, textiles or any natural material can be used to print on. Decide how big your print is going to be, and cut your material to size. Make sure your working area is dimly lit, or lit with a low-level tungsten bulb. Once the material is coated, leave it to dry in the dark.
3Printing the cyanotype
Print a cyanotype by placing your negative (to reproduce a photograph) or object (to make a photogram) in contact with your coated paper or fabric. Sandwich it with a piece of glass. Expose the sandwich to UV light. Natural sunlight is the traditional light source, but UV lamps can also be used. A photogram can also be made by placing items on the surface. Plants, decorative items or other objects can be used to create silhouettes or interesting shapes. Exposure times can vary from a few minutes to several hours, depending on how strong your lightsource is or the season where you are printing.
4Processing and drying
When the print has been exposed, process your print by rinsing it in cold water. The wash also removes any unexposed chemicals. Wash for at least 5 minutes, until all chemicals are removed and the water runs clear. Oxidation is also hastened this way – bringing out the blue color. The final print can now be hung to dry and be admired.
79 thoughts on “Cyanotype – the classic process”
I don’t have much information about your process to go on here, so guessing:
-Could it be old emulsion?
-Could it be exposed to light somehow during coating?
Final solution gets blue with out UV.
Used befor same chemicals and same proportions and everything was ok.
Wat can be an issue?
It’s kind of hard to advice you on this since I don’t know how you will be using it. 🙂
Thank you for the cyanotype tip! Nice one!
I am trying to figure out which side of the pictorico film to face up or down? Can anyone assist? Dark side up or light side down?
Also I read some comments on how to bring out the blue. My Professor showed me a trick on making it darker. First rinse it like normal, then fill it with water and at one to two caps of hydrogen peroxide to the water. Make sure it is mixed before you rinse your paper again. This will bring the blue out more. It was said by another Professor from a different college, it would work on photos that that have been made and have not been rinsed in the hydrogen peroxide. As my Professor does not deal with cyanotype on a daily, she does not know everything. As to why I am asking the question up top. She does know of the chemicals and how to bring out the blue.
Depends on where in the world you are, have you seen the Suppliers directory?
You can turn your cyanotype sepia by bleaching them in bicarbonate and then dipping them in tea or coffee.
Where is the best place to get 365nm lighting?
And how do you turn cyanotypes to sepia?
Just found your site (teaching a photography class and dining cyanotypes today). Great information! Might try my hand at mixing my own chemical this summer!!
Has anyone tried using Master’s Touch Watercolor Canvas from Hobby Lobby? It’s pre stretched and has a fairly fine surface. It is primed with some type of acrylic mix. I’m soaking it in a mild HCL solution now (200 ml 20% HCL in 2 liters of water). There was some minor bubbling that lasted about 10 minutes. One thing I noticed is that the acid solution did not penetrate the canvas, so I am going to try sizing it with either arrowroot or gelatin after washing and drying it. Any thoughts?
@alice: It depends on where you are and how strong the sun is. Here are different findings from around the world. Do contribute with your own too when you’ve found the perfect exposure time:
hello i was wondering how long you should expose the paper in the sun or under UV light – and does it depend on the amount of sunlight – eg will the work on an overcast day?! thanks!
I’m trying to make the blue a richer, deeper blue and I am wondering if anyone has a trick for this? I have tried exposing for longer and double coating. The former produces uneven results and the latter increases the contrast but not the richness of the blue colour itself 🙁
I’m thinking adjusting the formula, but wanted to throw it out there in case anyone had any ideas?
I have produced these rich blue before but can’t seem to get it anymore. I think it might be that my chemicals are coming from a new supplier possibly. Either way, trying to solve and appreciate any suggestions!
Jessica – I use Somerset Satin think it’s about 300gsm. Or really any printmakers paper of a similar weight works best. It’s worth bearing in mind the different textures of the paper and what you prefer.
(I’m an artist working with cyanotypes for 5 years or so!)
Hi, what paper do you suggest to use for cyanotypes? I used Canson’s watercolor paper and it came out a dark green not blue. I know I mixed the chemicals correctly because when I went to dispose of the paper bowl I used for mixing the chemicals together and went out into the sun it turned blue almost instantly so I’m thinking that it’s the paper I am using.
@April: I have stored material for 10 years and it remains printable.
I am about to coat fabric with cyanotype solution. How long will it remain light sensitive if stored in dry, cool and dark conditions?
@Sally-Jane. That is a nice idea.
Tap water vs distilled: I have not done an archival test to test tap vs distilled, but unless your water contains a lot of strange chemicals, use ordinary tap water. To rinse in distilled water would take a lot of water. If your water contains a lot of chemicals, you may want to mix the solutions with distilled water though.
Keeping from fading: You can use a UV-spray to extend the non-fading time. If a cyanotype fades, the beauty of it is that you can put it back in the dark and it will come back. Magic!
I am using cyanotype for the first time to print my Christmas Cards.
What will be the difference between using tap water or distilled?
How do I stop the prints fading?
Can anyone comment on what affects the intensity of the blue color in a cyanotype? Today I created three images. Same paper, same exposure time in the same UV exposure unit. The paper was coated about 11am, and I made the first print around 1:30. By 2:30, all three prints were done. The coating in each case was 12 drops each of Solutions A & B, taken from the same containers with the same uncontaminated eyedroppers (one dedicated to each solution). Each bottle of solution was well-shaken each time it was used. All three digital negatives were made by the same process, and printed on the same type of film by the same printer. The coating on the dried sheets, when pulled out of my dark drying area were yellowy-green – none appeared to be fogged. One of the prints is a rich, dark blue. The other two are anemic, even around the edges where absolutely nothing was printed on the film. Even the brushstrokes that extend beyond the area covered by the film are anemic. Any ideas?
@Frances: No, not in my experience. You can use them right away.
Do the sensitizing chemicals need to “cure” for a certain length of time before mixing and using on fabric?
I have not had trouble…
Are you using pre-sensitised paper or are you painting on the cyanotype solution yourself?
If you are painting it on yourself, perhaps you don’t have the correct chemical ratios.
Are you painting it on in the dark and leaving it until it is completely dry before exposing to sunlight?
I have had the best results with a heavy textured watercolour paper.
Hi, could you please help me? I was trying with paper, when it’s exposed it looks good, but then i washed it and it washes basically everything even the blue and the picture disappears. Can the paper be a problem?
Hello! I want to make large cyanotype images of my naked body onto fabric (Currently studying Fine Art in University if that explains anything haha!), and I don’t exactly live in a private area so I don’t want to be bathing naked in the sun where my neighbours can see me!
Is there alternative solution to developing the image from UV light in-doors? I’m not sure if the bulbs I can buy on websites like Amazon or eBay are strong enough or legitimate UV Bulbs for obvious reasons (i.e. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Black-lightbulb-violet-energy-Bayonet/dp/B000L97W74). Would I even be able to use these kind of bulbs just to make smaller projects?
Any advice would be much appreciated! Thank you
@N.I: Yes, the green can be substituted for the brown and vice versa. Good luck!
I wanted to know if the green version of ferric ammonium citrate can be substituted with the brown version of ferric ammonium citrate. I can’t get my hands on the green version.
Thanks for your help
Sue Corr: Not too light and not for too long, it will start to affect the paper eventually.
I have a place to dry the coated emulsion on the paper in the bathroom. It is almost dark apart from the edges of the door frame just a tiny bit of light comes through…..will this be a problem…
@ Stacey: that sounds like a lot of fun! Try bleaching it with bicarbonate soda, just like when bleaching a print for toning.
At my work, we held a children’s camp and made cyanotype t-shirts. Some of the solution fell onto the brick where it seems to be getting more potent, even though it has rained. Any suggestions on getting cyanotype solution off of brick?
is it necessary that the photograph which we want to print should be a negative and should be printed on a transparent sheet kind of a thing?
Can I coat porcelain tiles with the cyanotype chemicals and, using various masks, produce a cyanotype print on the tile?
@Alice Goh: Yes, brown Ferric Ammonium Citrate works too. Good luck.
Will the brown Ferric ammonium citrate works as well?
I can only find Ammonium ferric citrate (brown), can this works for the blueprint.
Or i should buy other chemical to have the blueprint effect?
@alice: You can find plenty of suppliers of chemicals here, most ship anywhere:
Anyone know where to purchase the chemical in sg?
Try http://www.artvango.co.uk kits are £7.25 and postage is basic Royal Mail.
I put my Cyanotypes in the dark (a cupboard or under the stairs) for a few days to bring the colour back.
Re buying cyanotype chemicals – I bought mine from a chemical supplier – a company that supplies school and university science departments.
Where can I buy the chemicals cheapest with Free or low UK postage? I’ve looked all over the place, I’m just looking for a reliable cheap website
I have old cyanotypes that I made 30 years ago. They are fading. Someone told me that if I put them in the sunlight the blue would darken. Has anyone tried this? Someone else told me that if I put them in the dark they would darken – completely the opposite advice. I could experiment but I don’t want to damage the old images.
Any ideas? Thanks
@Chloe: You can use any spoon. I’ve even mixed chemicals in a rusty old jar once, and it did affect the print but still printed:
Should I use only a plastic spoon?
I have stainless steel spoons. Do they affect the solutions?
I skimmed over all of these comments, but PEROXIDE is the ultimate blue booster. Once you put your print in some water with about a tablespoon of peroxide (don’t quote me on that) the blues just POP! Try it. It’s all an experiment anyway 🙂
Deborah: Contact frame suppliers can be found here:
Where can I find or buy a contact print frame?
Absolutley. Just make sure it’s not too creased when drying.
Is it possible with a light fabric, like a silk scarf, to just dip the entire piece into a container of cyanotype solution (and maybe wring it out with gloves on?) rather than coating by brushing?
@Grace… the solution should be yellow or greenish when you brush it on. Blue when you have rinsed and a deeper blue after a day.
I use this solution but when I brush it on the colour is a lot darker and bluer than the pictures show and I can’t figure out what went wrong.
I am using 100% cotton and the print is just washing out. I’ve done this before but I bought the fabric pretreated. I don’t know what I’m doing wrong. Help??
I just used this yesterday in a daring and dangerous camp we hold every summer. (All safety precautions were upheld.) It was great. A lot of the teens thought this was their favorite experiment of the day. I never imagined it would be so easy to make sunpaper. Thanks for posting the process!
Most literature says you should expose the day after coating, or as soon as it’s dry enough. I am however doing some experiments on how long the coated paper will last. I keep it in a dark dry place and have so far used 5 year old paper with success. So, don’t feel too stressed about using the paper up right away! 🙂
How long can you wait to expose your paper after you have allowed the chemistry to dry? Some of my prepared papers ( I’m coating 100% cotton paper ) are turning green overnight. What is the ideal amount of time between coating and exposing?
do cyanotypes have to be strictly done with negatives for best effect or are there other ways to get a larger print,
I thought maybe placing a transparent print instead of a neg?
And if so, how would i go about finding a method/service that does this.
Any info appreciated.
I use a negative produced off of photo shop, printed on canvas and I left it outside for about 35-40 mins. Most of it look normal except for one area that just a vivid puple
Which exposure time do you have?
I’ve been making cyanotypes for a few months now, and I seem to have a re-occuring problem. When I look at my finshed prints there is purple in places it should be white. My instructor said it was from my canvas not being dry, but we both made sure it was 100% dry before exposing it. What could it be then?
I suppose you can just underexpose the print and it will be lighter.
I really like the cyanotype print blue color that appears after about 5′ of washing (after exposure). For me, it is much richer than the dark blue that comes when the print dries. Is there any way to get this softer, lighter blue print as a final picture? Thanks
I have not tried this, the process needs UV light. I doubt it will work, but please try and let us all know!
I have brought all the things needed to make a cyanotype and i will make a start on it next week. One question, do you think it would be pssible to make a cyanotyp by enlarging onto the sensitized paper as if it was normal photosensitive paper?
The book is very good to start up with cyanotype. I’ve used it a lot, actually it’s my 1st book in this topic.
The things to check when your print disappear:
The material: is it natural (if you are using pre coated paper this SHOULD be fine). If you are printing on cloth, make sure it’s not any synthetics in it, also wash it beforehand to remove any starch.
If you are using paper, it may be sized. To remove any sizing, use a white vinegar soak.
The coating: Make sure there is no white light, sunlight or tungsten lights that may affect your print.
The exposure: Make sure it’s long enough. As a test, try exposing for an hour or so, and see if the same thing happens.
The wash: Is your water alkaline? Can you try rinsing somewhere else to compare the result?
I hope this works!
I used the ‘sunography’ paper product sold in packets of 6 sheets specifically for this process.
I rinsed the paper with tap water. I also even tried using some peroxide solution as I saw this on the internet
It is being sold everywhere at the moment eg.
any help gratefully received
@ Karen. More questions: Which material did you try printing on, and did you rinse in tap water?
I tried it various times, some for 30mins ( cloudy day) some for less time.
The impression before rinsing was a pale white with bluish surround
How long did you expose the image for? Was there a clear print (green or yellow) before you started rinsing it?
I, like Pete above have had problems developing the print on
ready prepared cyanotype paper.
The image is there and then when rinsed, it disappears!
How do you fix it, please.
I am using a pack of ‘sunography’ paper
What type of photographs that works best with cyanotypes depends a little on what you are after. You can print a very contrasty negative and get good effects, though cyanotypes are also capable of a wide range of mid tones.
As far as the motif goes, I think architecture and symmetry works really well in cyanotype. If you like toning them sepia, then portraits and landscapes are working well too, but it’s very subjective, and depends on what you like.
what types of photos works best w/ cyanotypes?
To coat cyanotypes, or work with the chemicals, no extra ventilation is needed, though it’s always good to have sufficient ventilation for other reasons! You don’t need red light to prep either, a dimmed room light is fine. Just be careful with using tungsten light, or daylight. Good luck!
I would like to know if you hood or directed high ventilation to do cyanotype and if you need red light for prep or could you yellow light.
I’m assuming you can see the print when you have exposed it?
I would try some problem elimination. First get a 100% cotton material, wash it, and then try printing on it. If that works, you know it’s the wrong paper you are using.
Second I would try using distilled water. If that works, you know it’s the water you are using.
Let us know how it works out!
I have been having problems the entire print is washed away during th wash process. I have tried various papers from the recommended paper list to no avail. I am wondering if there is something in the water that is bleaching the print. Our water is pretty tasty and has no strong chlorine smell.