Gallery by process

Albumen photographers

Ellie Young

Replacing the salt print process by the 1840’s, albumen prints combine beaten egg whites with salt and potassium iodide for a higher definition photograph.

Ambrotype photographers

Alexey Alexeev

As a member of the wet plate collodion family of processes, it was a successful competitor to the daguerreotype. Ambrotypes produce a positive image onto a glass plate which is later varnished and mounted. Although daguerreotypes have better contrast and sharpness, ambrotypes are less expensive, pose less hazards to produce, and can be hand tinted.

Anthotype photographers

Fabio Pasquarella

A fun and easy way to make images using the juice from fruits, plants, flowers, and vegetables as both sensitizer and pigment! Practiced by Sir William Herschel beginning in the 1840’s, this method is very suited to photograms. Although anthotype prints are novel and unique, permanence of the image depends upon your choice of organic extract.

Argyrotypes photographers

European Travelling Portfolio

One of several contemporary processes conceived by Dr. Mike Ware, argyrotypes draw upon ammonium ferric citrate, sulphamic acid, and silver oxide to produce pleasing purple brown images. It is claimed that the argyrotype follows an easier workflow than the more traditional kallitype described further down on this page.

Bromoil photographers

Candace Makowichuk

Early twentieth century processes which begins with a silver bromide print and ends with an oily or inked print of alluring elegance.

Carbon and carbro photographers

Andrew Glover

Patented in 1846 by Joseph Swan, carbon prints typically utilize a pigmented tissue, potassium dichromate , and gelatin to create images of amazing beauty and longevity. Carbro printing follows much of the same procedure as carbon printing while utilizing a bromide paper.

Casein pigment print photographers

Peter J. Blackburn

Casein, a protein found in milk and cheese, can be used to replace gum arabic as the vehicle/binder agent in dichromate printing. Depending upon how your casein is prepared, both subtle and bold prints in monochrome and tricolor are possible. Among several advantages, casein prints tend to more easily print a slightly broader tonal range than gum bichromate images.

Chemigrams photographers

Christine Yardley

Photographs are made by pouring or painting developing liquid onto photopaper, creating dreamlike images.

Chrysotype photographers

Richard Puckett

Based upon Sir John Herschel’s gold printing process, Dr. Mike Ware will carefully guide you through a process of making prints which display hues from delicate reds and pinks to blues and blacks.

Copper photogravure photographers

Copper photogravure

Also known as the Talbot-Klič process, a copper plate is coated with light sensitive material. The plate is then exposed to a positive matrix, etched, inked, and pressed onto paper. It is one of several methods for both producing and reproducing high quality, continuous tone prints.

Cyanotype & vandyke photographers

Amber Reumann Engfer

In the cyanotype and vandyke combined we find the blue of cyanotype and the warm brown of Vandyke used as distinct and separate segments of a complete print. Sometimes an overlapping of the two processes can also be seen in portions of a typical combination photograph.

Cyanotype photographers

Amber Reumann Engfer

The cyanotype, also known as a blueprint, is considered among the easiest of all the historical methods. Dating from 1842, this classic Prussian blue process is a great place for both beginners and accomplished artists alike to explore. Cyanotypes are economical, permanent, have few pitfalls, and are versatile in that a variety of toning effects are possible.

Cyanotype rex photographers

European Travelling Portfolio

Originated by Terry King and others, a dilute solution of potassium ferricyanide is used to develop an exposed image comprised of ferric oxalate and oxalic acid.

Cyanotypes over gum photographers

Sarah van Keuren

Whether to increase density, add spot color, or serving as the blue layer for a tricolor photograph, placing a cyanotype coat over a gum bichromate print is just another of many innovative techniques available to the creative artist.

Daguerrotype photographers

Daniel Kuczynski

Considered among the original of alternative processes, daguerreotypes possess a look, feel, and beauty unlike any other historical method. Not for the faint of heart or the ill-equipped, those desiring to explore the rewards of this endeavor must exercise a high level of responsibility and caution.

Dry plate photographers

Barbara J. Dombach

With a few exceptions, the use of the term dry plate is a reference to glass plates coated with gelatin/silver salts and used in a dry condition. Replacing the wet plate method known for all of the tedious last minute preparations it encumbered, the ready-made dry plate technology proved to be a convenient improvement. By the late 1880's, dry plate enabled photographers to purchase dry emulsion-coated glass plates from vendors such as Kodak for their camera.

Fuji emulsion lift photographers

Fuji image lifts and transfers uses similar techniques to Polaroid lifts and transfers, but with Fuji film instead of Polaroid.

Fuji image transfer photographers

Fuji image lifts and transfers uses similar techniques to Polaroid lifts and transfers, but with Fuji film instead of Polaroid.

Gum bichromate photographers

Anna Low

Gum bichromate and casein pigment printing utilizing water-based colors are but two among several forms of dichromate techniques resulting in expressive monochrome and full-color imagery.

Gum over cyanotype photographers

Christina Z. Anderson

In many cases, this combination approach applies to tricolor gum printing whereby the cyan (blue) layer of a gum bichromate image is actually created with the cyanotype process rather than a blue pigment. The red and yellow gum layers go over top the blue cyanotype layer. This approach can increase print density and definition for tricolor work. Alternatively, any number of spot colors in gum can be placed over top a cyanotype print.

Gum over platinum and palladium photographers

Daniel Kuczynski

Perhaps considered the odd couple of alternative printing, the application of inexpensive pigmented gum bichromate can, indeed, add interesting tonalities and interpretive color to the substantially more costly platinum/palladium photograph.

Gum tricolor photographers

Barbara Eberhard

Gum, short for gum arabic, is combined with a dichromate and CMY (blue, red, yellow) pigments to produce full color prints. Artists vary in how they choose to order the three color layers. Some begin with the blue (cyan) layer while others start with the yellow layer. Pigment varieties and paper choices lend to the wide range of creative imagery typical for this rather enthralling niche in alternative printing.

Gumoil photographers

Colin D. Irwin

As the name implies, gumoils transforms a gum print into an oil-based image through labor intensive rubbing, wiping, and etching. In most cases, a positive matrix takes the place of the usual negative employed by other processes.

Hand painted photographs photographers

Anne-Storm-van-Leeuwen

A wide variety of alternative photographic prints readily lend themselves to hand painting, coloring, or tinting. From adding spot color to silver gelatin photos to enhancing Polaroid transfers with pastels or pigmented pencils, the manual application of color upon any number of processed images only serves to further increase the already endless possibilities for the visual artist.

Infrared photographers

Barbara J. Dombach

Working with reflected light in the long, infrared wave range can produce images of unexpected results with surreal visual effects. Infrared photographs have a spectacular glow and luminance, where highlights are usually diffused and contrast can be pronounced.

Kallitype photographers

Blog Elizabeth Graves

Although both silver and iron are required for Kallitypes and Van Dykes, the former is a bit more expensive and labor intensive of the two siblings. Depending on paper and toning, images can run the range of black, sepia, and beautiful rich browns. Extra care must be taken to ensure permanence of the print.

Kirlian photographers

John Iovine

A process involving electricity and photopaper.

Liquid emulsion photographers

Arnold Mariashin

Here we take a liquid silver emulsion and make applications to a variety of surfaces such as tile, glass, pottery, wood, canvas, stainless steel and coated metals. Brushing, dipping, and spraying are among the techniques employed for applying the emulsion to three-dimensional surfaces.

Lith print photographers

Andrew J. Currie

Using a lith developer, as the name implies, this delightful technique generally overexposes a silver print which is then developed in the diluted developer. Lith photographs display a wonderful luminance. Success with lith printing can depend upon your choice of paper, the handling of the negative, and several other key factors.

Lumen print photographers

Amber Reumann Engfer

Using a UV source, such as the sun, make delicate contact photographs and photograms using old or fogged silver gelatin paper. No development required! Just fix, tone, and enjoy!

Miscellaneous processes photographers

Photographers working with brand new processes, undocumented practices, unique techniques, and other creative alternative approaches not addressed elsewhere.

Mordancage photographers

Christina Z. Anderson

Also known as etch-bleach process, this rare and slightly esoteric process physically manipulates the silver gelatin print through acid bleaching, rubbing, and lifts. Images appear dreamlike, far removed from reality.

Oil print photographers

Francie van der Wielen

Predating the bromoil method, oil printers rely upon enlarged negatives which are placed in contact with paper coated with dichromate and gelatin. Some oil printers express a bit more ease to this approach over the related and more common bromoil technique. Oil printing is also known as the Rawlins’ process.

Oleobrom photographers

European Travelling Portfolio

Oleobrom printing is regarded as a faster, less complicated technique in comparison to the bromoil process.

Palladium photographers

Daniel Kuczynski

Becoming a practical printing method by 1873, platinum, and the less expensive palladium process has a rich heritage of which marvelous works abound from scores of well known artists. Although sensitive to paper choices, platinum/palladium images are highly stable, producing exquisite warm tones.

Patinum and palladium photographers

Amy Holmes George

Becoming a practical printing method by 1873, platinum, and the less expensive palladium process has a rich heritage of which marvelous works abound from scores of well known artists. Although sensitive to paper choices, platinum/palladium images are highly stable, producing exquisite warm tones.

Photo intaglio photographers

Copper photogravures, solarplates, photo intagio, polymer gravures and heliogravures are all printmaking techniques, where a photograph is set in a plate, the plate inked and the image transferred to a paper.

Photograms photographers

Christine Yardley

Made familiar to the public by the work of Man Ray, a photogram as the name implies is a record or drawing created with light. Typically, objects are placed upon a light sensitive surface such as photo paper and exposed to the sun or other light source. An image is formed in direct relation to the translucency the selected object(s). No camera is required. Cyanotype, van Dyke, gum bichromate, and many other printing processes are wonderful vehicles for photograms.

Photolithography photographers

Angela-Young

A technique developed in the mid 19th century, by which images are photographically transferred to a matrix (either an aluminum plate or, less frequently, a stone), and printed by hand. A classic combination of photography and printmaking employing a variety of skills.

Photopolymer gravure photographers

Barbara Maloney

Copper photogravures, solarplates, photo intagio, polymer gravures and heliogravures are all printmaking techniques, where a photograph is set in a plate, the plate inked and the image transferred to a paper.

Photosynthesis photographers

Malin Fabbri

No photo paper? No worries. Just go and find some leaves! Learn how to contact print onto flat plant or vegetable matter using a positive intermediate. Let your creativity soar!

Pinhole photographers

Arunas Kulikauskas

Discover the expressive world of lens-less photography. A camera, usually handmade out of a box or can, allows light to pass through a small aperture onto a light sensitive material, such as photo paper. By using a simple aperture without a lens, dreamy and magical photographs like no other are possible. Images created with a pinhole camera can also be incorporated into other alternative processes.

Platinum photographers

Becoming a practical printing method by 1873, platinum, and the less expensive palladium process has a rich heritage of which marvelous works abound from scores of well known artists. Although sensitive to paper choices, platinum/palladium images are highly stable, producing exquisite warm tones.

Polaroid emulsion lifts photographers

Arunas Kulikauskas

Utilizing Polaroid peel-apart films, an artist can lift or separate a developed print and join the image to another surface, such as paper.

Polaroid image transfer photographers

Barbara J. Dombach

In a transfer, the artist takes the negative portion while still in development and, using a brayer, presses the image onto a desired surface.

Polaroid SX-70 photographers

Ivy Bigbee

Referring to either or both the Polaroid SX-70 camera manufactured throughout the 1970's and the celebrated SX-70 Integral films, beautiful image manipulations can be achieved through the use of this engaging camera/film technology.

POP - Printing-out paper photographers

Devon Johnson

A photo paper designed to create a complete and visible image though the action of light alone without any chemical development is commonly known as a printing out paper, or POP. Washing and toning are typically the only processing procedures. Photographs printed on POP tend to yield images with subtle and warm tonality.

Pyro photographers

Pyro, or PMK, is a celebrated formula/process for film development. It has a loyal, vocally dedicated following among many artists and photographers. This three chemical developer (pyrogallol, metol, and Kodalk or sodium bisulfate), can be the solution of choice when everything from sharpness, to stain, to speed and stability are critically important to the outcome of your processed film.

Resinotype photographers

A bromoil related method developed in Italy where rosin is combined with a pigment to create photographs of rich, velvety texture. A somewhat uncommon glossy finish is possible with resinotypes.

Salt print photographers

Davide Rossi from Italy

Salt printing, originally developed by Fox Talbot and typically practiced until the 1850’s, combines salt, silver nitrate, and a UV light source to produce delightful reddish brown images.

Satista photographers

Here is another variation on the platinum theme. Combining the standard platinum formula with some ferric ammonium oxalate, and then processing with a dilute silver nitrate bath, Satista printing can be your economical ticket to an otherwise expensive endeavor. Satista prints respond well to gold, platinum, and palladium toners.

Silver gelatin photographers

Amber Reumann Engfer

Gelatin silver prints, or gelatin dry-plate, appeared on the scene in the 1880’s, replacing the wet-plate process and revolutionizing the photographic industry. It has remained the standard for silver halide photography. Here we explore hand coated paper and look for ways to incorporate other alternative process with silver gelatin printing.

Solargraph photographers

Malin Fabbri

Get out your pinhole camera and discover a whole other world of creative application. Trace the movements of the sun to enhance or intensify your pinhole images, especially industrial and terrestrial landscapes. Expressive, surreal, and edgy are all appropriate words which describe the novel characteristics of the solargraph.

Temperaprint photographers

Barbara Maloney

Eggs, ammonium bichromate, and a variety of pigments including acrylics come together for an exercise of multiple printing under a UV light. Created by the late Peter Frederick, this process is suitable for printing on synthetic materials such as Yupo.

Tintype (modern) photographers

Andrew J. Currie

Less toxic and more user friendly than the traditional tintype procedure, a silver emulsion is sprayed, brushed, or finger spread over a painted metal plate. This one-off process uses a positive rather than a negative intermediate. Both large and small images can be produced with the modern tintype method.

Vandyke over gum photographers

Wendy Currie

This technique typically overlays a warm brown Vandyke layer overtop an entire pigmented gum print. The Vandyke layer can provide further definition, density, and subtle tones to the overall image.

Vandyke photographers

Chris Byrnes

Although both silver and iron are required for Kallitypes and Van Dykes, the former is a bit more expensive and labor intensive of the two siblings. Depending on paper and toning, images can run the range of black, sepia, and beautiful rich browns. Extra care must be taken to ensure permanence of the print.

Vandyke pinhole photographers

Wendy Currie

Couple a proven process which produces rich brown tones with a focus-free imaging technique and you have a winning combination for inspiring, long-lasting photographs.

Wet plate collodion photographers

Alexey Alexeev

Wetplate, or wet collodion process dates from 1851 through the work of Frederick Archer. A glass plate is coated with cellulose nitrate, an iodide, and silver nitrate. The plate is then exposed and processed while still wet. The tintype is a version of wetplate which utilizes a sheet of black painted metal.

Woodburytype photographers

For more than half a century, Woodburytypes were a standard in high quality photographic reproduction. Related to the intaglio printing process, Woodburytypes employ materials such as gelatin and pigment, and historically required the use of a hand press.

Ziatype photographers

Developed by Richard Sullivan, the Ziatype is another printing out to completion method exclusive chemical development (POP). Ziatypes tend to be more tolerant of paper choice than many other processes of this kind. Chemical controls help to obtain certain tones desired in the finished print which can vary from brown, to purple, to gray.

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